PHY.K02UF Molecular and Solid State Physics

Crystal diffraction

Everything moves like a wave and exchanges energy and momentum like a particle. When waves move through a crystal they diffract. Light, sound, neutrons, atoms, and electrons are all diffracted by crystals.

Kittel chapter 2: Crystal diffraction or R. Gross und A. Marx: Strukturanalyse mit Beugungsmethoden

Equivalent statements of the diffraction condition

Bragg's lawBragg-Gleichung
Laue condition Laue-Bedingung
Diffraction condition 1Diffraktion Bedingung 1
Diffraction condition 2Diffraktion Bedingung 2

The shape and the dimensions of the unit cell can be deduced from the position of the Bragg reflections; the content of the unit cell, on the other hand, must be determined from the intensities of the reflections.

Solid State Physics, Ibach and Lüth

CSIC Crystallography website
PowderCell - a program to visualize crystal structures, calculate the corresponding powder patterns and refine experimental curves
The International Centre for Diffraction Data
Guide for the exercise: X-ray diffraction within the course 511.121 Praktikum für Fortgeschrittene
International Tables for Crystallography: Structure Factor
Advanced Certificate in Powder Diffraction on the Web
Brillouin zones at the University of Cambridge
Teaching pamphlets from the International Union of Crystallography

  • 1. A non-mathematical introduction to X-ray diffraction. C. A. Taylor
  • 2. An introduction to the scope, potential and applications of X-ray analysis. M. Laing
  • 3. Introduction to the Calculation of Structure Factors. S. C. Wallwork
  • 4. The Reciprocal Lattice. A. Authier
  • 5. Close-packed structures. P. Krishna and D. Pandey
  • 6. Pourquoi les groupes de Symétrie en Cristallographie. D. Weigel
  • 7. Crystal structure analysis using the `superposition' - and `complementary' - structures. L. Höhne and L. Kutchabsky
  • 8. Anomalous Dispersion of X-rays in Crystallography. S. Caticha-Ellis
  • 9. Rotation Matrices and Translation Vectors in Crystallography. S. Hovmöller
  • 10. Metric Tensor and Symmetry Operations in Crystallography. G. Rigault
  • 11. The Stereographic Projection. E. J. W. Whittaker
  • 12. Projections of Cubic Crystals. Ian 0. Angell and Moreton Moore
  • 13. Symmetry. L. S. Dent Glasser
  • 14. Space Group Patterns. W. M. Meier
  • 15. Elementary X-Ray Diffraction for Biologists. Jenny P. Glusker
  • 16. The Study of Metals and Alloys by X-ray Powder Diffraction Methods. H. Lipson
  • 17. An Introduction to Direct Methods. The Most Important Phase Relationships and their Application in Solving the Phase Problem. H. Schenk
  • 18. An Introduction to Crystal Physics. Ervin Hartmann
  • 19. Introduction to Neutron Powder Diffractometry. E. Arzi
  • 20. Crystals - A Handbook for School Teachers. Elizabeth A. Wood. This classic text is now available as a Web resource in several different language translations.
  • 21. Crystal Packing. Angelo Gavezzotti and Howard Flack. Includes illustrations of the two-dimensional space groups
  • 22. Matrices, Mappings and Crystallographic Symmetry. Hans Wondratschek